Clinical Endocrinology & Hormone
Clinical endocrinology laboratory tests diagnose a wide range of issues pertaining to the endocrine system, specifically hormones, that affect psychological or behavioral actives such as metabolism, growth and development, digestion and reproduction. Hormones are chemicals that affect the actions of different organ systems in the body and are involved in a number of feedback mechanisms that are either inhibited or released into the body.
Common Tests Include
Cortisol AM and PM - The body’s “fight or flight” hormone that is secreted by the adrenal glands to help control mood, motivation and fear. Aids in keeping inflammation down, regulating blood pressure, controlling sleep/wake cycle.
Estradiol - A hormone that helps mature and maintain the reproductive cycle. While men and women produced estradiol, it is most prominent in females. During the menstrual cycle, increased estradiol levels cause the maturation and release of the egg, as well as the thickening of the uterus lining to allow a fertilized egg to implant. The hormone is made primarily in the ovaries, so levels decline as women age and decrease significantly during menopause.
Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) - Hormone that made by the pituitary gland that plays a crucial role in sexual development and function. In women, FSH helps control the menstrual cycle and stimulates the growth of eggs in the ovaries. FSH levels in women change throughout the menstrual cycle, with the highest levels happening just before an egg is released by the ovary. This is known as ovulation. In men, FSH helps control the production of sperm. Normally, FSH levels in men do not change very much. In children, FSH levels are usually low until puberty when levels begin to rise. In girls, it helps signal the ovaries to make estrogen. In boys, it helps signal the testes to make testosterone.
Free Thyroxine (FT4) - Help evaluate thyroid function and diagnose thyroid diseases, including hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism, usually after discovering that the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level is abnormal.
Free triiodothyronine (FT3) - A form of the T3 hormone that is used to diagnose thyroid disease. Plays an important role in controlling weight, body temperature, muscle strength and nervous system.
Human Chorionic Gonadotropin(HcG) Quantitative and Qualitative - Pregnancy test that determines both a confirmation of pregnancy as well as an approximation of weeks pregnant a woman is.
Insulin - Hormone produced by the pancreas that regulates sugar metabolism in the body.
Luteinizing Hormone (LH) - Hormone that helps the reproductive system, specifically a woman’s ovaries and man’s testes.
Progesterone - Progesterone prepares the endometrium for the potential of pregnancy after ovulation. It triggers the lining to thicken to accept a fertilized egg. It also prohibits the muscle contractions in the uterus that would cause the body to reject an egg. While the body is producing high levels of progesterone, the body will not ovulate.
Prolactin - Prolactin is a hormone produced by your pituitary gland which sits at the bottom of the brain. Prolactin causes breasts to grow and develop and causes milk to be made after a baby is born. Normally, both men and women have small amounts of prolactin in their blood. Prolactin levels are controlled by other hormones called prolactin inhibiting factors (PIFs), such as dopamine.
Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (sHBG) - This test measures the level of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) in your blood. SHBG is a protein made by your liver. It binds tightly to 3 sex hormones found in both men and women. Although SHBG binds 3 hormones, the hormone that’s critical in this test is testosterone. SHBG controls the amount of testosterone that your body tissues can use.
Testosterone, Total - Testosterone is a hormone found in humans, as well as in other animals. In men, the testicles primarily make testosterone. Women’s ovaries also make testosterone, though in much smaller amounts. Testosterone is most often associated with sex drive and plays a vital role in sperm production. It also affects bone and muscle mass, the way men store fat in the body, and even red blood cell production.
Thyroid Stimulating Hormone - Hormone produced by the pituitary gland that plays an important role in regulating your weight, body temperature, muscle strength and even mood.
Thyroxine(T4) - Thyroxine is the main hormone secreted into the bloodstream by the thyroid gland. It plays vital roles in digestion, heart and muscle function, brain development and maintenance of bones.
Triiodothyronine (T3) - Hormone to regulate how the body uses energy. Plays an important role in controlling weight, body temperature, muscle strength and nervous system
Thyroid Peroxidase (A-TPO) - Thyroid peroxidase (TPO) is an enzyme normally found in the thyroid gland. TPO plays an important role in the production of thyroid hormones. A TPO test detects antibodies against TPO in the blood.
Thyroglobulin Antibody (A-TG) - Thyroglobulin autoantibodies bind thyroglobulin (Tg), a major thyroid-specific protein. A-Tg plays a crucial role in thyroid hormone synthesis, storage, and release. A- Tg is not secreted into the systemic circulation under normal circumstances. However, follicular destruction through inflammation (thyroiditis and autoimmune hypothyroidism), hemorrhage (nodular goiter), or rapid disordered growth of thyroid tissue, as may be observed in Graves’ disease or follicular cell-derived thyroid neoplasms, can result in leakage of A-Tg into the blood stream.
T-Uptake - Thyroid hormone uptake (“T-uptake”) assays provide information on the number of thyroid hormone binding sites, consisting primarily of thyroid binding globulin, thyroxine binding prealbumin and albumin